Industry Terminology for Rodenticides
Active Ingredient – The specific chemical poison (rodenticide) that is incorporated into a rodent bait.
Anticoagulant – A group of common rodenticide active ingredients that work by thinning the blood of the rodent. These compounds interfere with blood clotting and cause death from excessive bleeding.
Non-anticoagulant – An active that does not work by thinning the blood. For example, bromethalin is a neurotoxin; cholecalciferol frees up calcium from bones into bloodstream leading to hypercalcemia; and zinc phosphide converts to phosphine gas in the rodent’s stomach; all work by modes of action different from anticoagulants.
Bait rotation – Rotating baits between different modes of action, (anticoagulants and non-anticoagulants) prevents mice from building up a resistant to certain types of active ingredients with known resistance.
Biosecurity – A programmed approach at preventing the introduction or spread of infectious diseases on a farm.
Formulation – The form in which a bait is presented to rodents. (e.g.) wax block, soft bait, pellets, meal, liquid).
Bait shyness – Behavioral response exhibited by rodents when poison is ingested at sublethal doses, causing them to avoid feeding on that bait in the future.
Trap Shyness – Behavioral response exhibited by rodents that have been injured by or startled by a trap that leads to temporary avoidance.
Neophobia - A cautious behavior by rodents around new objects in their environment. Rodents may avoid these objects for a few days until they become comfortable around them, especially traps and bait stations. Pre-baiting helps to overcome this problem.
Pre-Baiting – A process of getting rodents accustomed to traps by placing food on them without setting the traps for several days. This builds the rodent’s comfort towards the object, prior to setting the traps.
Stop Feed Effect – Rodenticide that causes rodent to halt further feeding once a lethal dose is consumed. This reduces bait waste, concerns of secondary poisoning and time required to feed less dominant rodents in population.
Neurotoxin – Rodenticide active ingredient (e.g. Bromethalin) that works by affecting the nervous system.
Calcium Liberator – Rodenticide active ingredient (i.e. cholecalciferol) that works by releasing high levels of calcium from bones into the blood stream,(hypercalcemia) and tissue calcification leading to death.
Lethal dose – The amount of rodenticide it takes to kill a rodent. Not all baits have the same lethal dosage.
Secondary poisoning – When one animal (dog, cat, bird) ingests a second animal (rodent) that has poison in its system.
Tamper resistant bait station – (1) Ability to be sealed or locked. (2) Strong enough to prohibit entry or destruction by dogs and children under 6 years of age (3) Ability to be anchored (4) Equipped with internal structures for containing baits and minimizing spillage. (5) Made of design and color not especially attractive to children. (6) Capable of displaying precautionary statements.
Inspection – The process of gathering information necessary for control measures. This is done by visually looking for signs of rodent activity. (e.g.). (Droppings, gnaw marks, rub marks, burrows).
Identification – The ability to know what type rodent is present. Norway Rats vs Roof Rats, Mice, Voles
Sanitation – Limiting a rodent’s ability to survive by removing or minimizing access to food, water and harborage.
Exclusion – Structural modification that blocks access to pest entry. (sealing gaps, structural repairs, door sweeps).